Archive for November 2014

Revolutional discovery in a brain - mirror neurons - Enigma of the metaphysical modular brain

Wednesday, November 26, 2014
Posted by 卍ᛣᛉ卐 ᛝ ↯↯↯ ѪDurgaѪ ↯↯↯ ᛝ 卍ᛉᛣ卐

 

 

 

 







Mirror neurons are one of the most important discoveries in the last decade of neuroscience. These are a variety of visuospatial neurons which indicate fundamentally about human social interaction. Essentially, mirror neurons respond to actions that we observe in others. The interesting part is that mirror neurons fire in the same way when we actually recreate that action ourselves. Apart from imitation, they are responsible for myriad of other sophisticated human behavior and thought processes. Defects in the mirror neuron system are being linked to disorders like autism. This review is a brief introduction to the neurons that shaped our civilization.
Keywords: Autism, neurons, visuospatial

INTRODUCTION

Mirror neurons represent a distinctive class of neurons that discharge both when an individual executes a motor act and when he observes another individual performing the same or a similar motor act. These neurons were first discovered in monkey's brain. In humans, brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons has been found in the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary somatosensory cortex, and the inferior parietal cortex [Figure 1].
Figure 1
The mirror neuron system in the human brain. (1) SMA: Supplementary motor area, (2) PSSC: Primary somato sensory cortex, (3) IPC: Inferior parietal cortex, (4) VPMA: Ventral premortal area, neurons having mirror properties, BA: Broca's area, WA: Wernicke's ...
Originally discovered in a subdivision of the monkey's premotor cortex, area F5, mirror neurons have later been also found in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL).[1] IPL receives a strong input from the cortex of the superior temporal sulcus (STS), a region known to code biological motion, and sends output to ventral premotor cortex including area F5.[2]
Neurophysiological (EEG, MEG, and TMS), and brain-imaging (PET and fMRI) experiments provided strong evidence that a fronto-parietal circuit with properties similar to the monkey's mirror neuron system is also present in humans.[3] As in the monkey, the mirror neuron system is constituted of IPL and a frontal lobe sector formed by the ventral premotor cortex plus the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG).

DEVELOPMENT

Human infant data using eye-tracking measures suggest that the mirror neuron system develops before 12 months of age, and that this system may help human infants understand other people's actions. Two closely related models postulate that mirror neurons are trained through Hebbian or associative learning.[4,5]

THE HEBBIAN THEORY

Donald Hebb in 1949 postulated that a basic mechanism for synaptic plasticity wherein an increase in synaptic efficacy arises from the presynaptic cell's repeated and persistent stimulation of the postsynaptic cell. When an axon of cell A is near enough to excite a cell B and repeatedly or persistently takes part in firing it, some growth process or metabolic change takes place in one or both cells such that A's efficiency, as one of the cells firing B, is increased. The theory is often summarized as “Cells that fire together, wire together.” This Hebbian theory attempts to explain “associative learning”, in which simultaneous activation of cells leads to pronounced increases in synaptic strength between those cells. Such learning is known as Hebbian learning.

DISCOVERY

In 1990s, a group of neurophysiologists placed electrodes in the ventral premotor cortex of the macaque monkey to study neurons specialized for the control of hand and mouth actions.[6] They recorded electrical signals from a group of neurons in the monkey's brain while the monkey was allowed to reach for pieces of food, so the researchers could measure their response to certain movements. They found that some of the neurons they recorded from would respond when the monkey saw a person pick up a piece of food as well as when the monkey picked up the food.
In another experiment, they showed the role of the mirror neuron system in action recognition, and proposed that the human Broca's region was the homologue region of the monkey ventral premotor cortex. Subsequently, a study by Ferrari Pier Francesco and colleagues described the presence of mirror neurons responding to mouth actions and facial gestures.[7]
A recent experiment by Christian Keysers and colleagues have shown that, in both humans and monkeys, the mirror system also responds to the sound of actions.[8] Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can examine the entire brain at once and suggests that a much wider network of brain areas shows mirror properties in humans than previously thought. These additional areas include the somatosensory cortex and are thought to make the observer feel what it feels like to move in the observed way.[9] Neuropsychological studies looking at lesion areas that cause action knowledge, pantomime interpretation, and biological motion perception deficits have pointed to a causal link between the integrity of the IFG and these behaviors.[10,11] Transcranial magnetic stimulation studies have confirmed this as well.[12]
Mukamel et al. recorded activity from 1177 brain neurons of 21 patients suffering from intractable epilepsy. The patients had been implanted with intracranial depth electrodes to identify seizure foci for potential surgical treatment. Electrode location was based solely on clinical criteria; the researchers, used the same electrodes to “piggyback” their research. The experiment included three phases; making the patients observe facial expressions (observation phase), grasping (activity phase), and a control experiment (control phase). In the observation phase, the patients observed various actions presented on a laptop computer. In the activity phase, the subjects were asked to perform an action based on a visually presented word. In the control task, the same words were presented, and the patients were instructed not to execute the action. The researchers found a small number of neurons that fired or showed their greatest activity both when the individual performed a task and when they observed a task. Other neurons had anti-mirror properties, that is, they responded when the participant saw an action but were inhibited when the participant performed that action. The mirror neurons found were located in the supplementary motor area and medial temporal cortex.[13]

POSTULATED FUNCTIONS OF MIRROR NEURONS IN HUMANS

Intention understanding

Mirror neurons are associated with one of the most intriguing aspect of our complex thought process, that is “Intention understanding”. There are two distinct processes of information that one can get observing an action done by another individual. The first component is WHAT action is being done? And the second more complex component is WHAT FOR or, WHY (Intention) the action is being done. Figure 2 is a representation of the consequences described. The complex beauty of the discussed subject is the second component where our mirror neurons premonate the future action which is yet to occur. Two neuroscientists[14] first hypothesized that mirror neurons are involved in intention understanding, which was later supported by fMRI study. In this experiment, volunteers were presented with hand actions without a context and hand actions executed in contexts that allowed them to understand the intention of the action agent. The study demonstrated that actions embedded in contexts yielded selective activation of the mirror neuron system. This indicates that mirror areas, in addition to action understanding, also mediate the understanding of others’ intention.[15] These data indicate that the mirror neuron system is involved in intention understanding, though, it fails to explain the specific mechanisms underlying it.
Figure 2
Understanding of “what” and “why” actions through mirror neuron system
In order to explain this hypothesis, a study[16] was carried out on two rhesus macaque monkeys [Figure 3]. The monkeys were trained to perform two actions with different goals. The schematic representation is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 3
The selective activation of different neurons in different goal oriented tasks
In the first, the monkey had to grasp an object in order to place it in a container. In the second, it had to grasp a piece of food to eat it. The initial motor acts, reaching and grasping, were identical in the two situations, but the final goal oriented action was different. The activity of neurons was recorded from the IPL, which has long been recognized as an association cortex that integrates sensory information. The results showed that 41 mirror neurons fired selectively when the monkey executed a given motor act (e.g. grasping). However interestingly, only specific sets (15 neurons) within the IPL fired during the second goal constrained acts.
Some of these “action-constrained” motor neurons had mirror properties and selectively discharged during the observation of motor acts when these were embedded in a given action (e.g., grasping-for-eating, but not grasping-for-placing). Thus, the activation of IPL action-constrained mirror neurons give information not only about, but also on why grasping is done (grasping-for-eating or grasping-for placing). This specificity allowed the observer not only to recognize the observed motor act, but also to code what will be the next motor act of the not-yet-observed action, in other words to understand the intentions of the action's agent.

Autism and intention understanding

It has been postulated and proved by neuroscientists that the inability of autistic children to relate to people and life situations in the ordinary way depends on a lack of a normally functioning mirror neuron system.[1719] EEG recordings mu waves from motor areas are suppressed when someone watches another person's move, a signal that may relate to the mirror neuron system. This suppression was less in children with autism.
Basically autism is characterized by two neuropsychiatric abnormalities. First is the defect in the social-cognitive domain which presents as mental aloneness, a lack of contact with the external world and lack of empathy. The second is sensorimotor defects like temper tantrums, head banging, and some form of repetitive rituals. All these are now suggested to be because of some anomaly of the mirror neuron development. One interesting phenomena in autism is the inability to comprehend abstract reasoning and metaphors, which in normal humans is subserved by left supramarginal gyrus rich in mirror neurons. Mirror neuron abnormalities have also been blamed for a number of other autistic problems like language difficulties, self-identification, lack of imitation, and finally intention understanding.
However, the autistic enigma continues as whether the primary deficit in intention understanding found in autistic children is due to damage of the mirror neuron system as it is responsible for understanding the actions of others, or rather there exists more basic defects in the organization of the motor chains. In other words, the fundamental deficit in autistic children resides in the incapacity to organize their own intentional motor behavior.

Emotions and empathy

Many studies have independently argued that the mirror neuron system is involved in emotions and empathy.[2023] Studies have shown that people who are more empathic according to self-report questionnaires have stronger activations both in the mirror system for hand actions and the mirror system for emotions, providing more direct support for the idea that the mirror system is linked to empathy. Functions mediated by mirror neurons depend on the anatomy and physiological properties of the circuit in which these neurons are located. Emotional and empathetic activations were found in parieto-premotor circuits responsible for motor action control. In a fMRI experiment[24] represented schematically below, [Figure 4] one group of participants were exposed to disgusting odorants and, the other group, to short movie clips showing individuals displaying a facial expression of disgust. It was found that the exposure to disgusting odorants specifically activates the anterior insula and the anterior cingulate. Most interestingly, the observation of the facial expression of disgust activated the same sector of the anterior insula.[25] In agreement with these findings, the data are obtained in another fMRI experiment that showed activation of the anterior insula during the observation and imitation of facial expressions of basic emotions.
Figure 4
The mirror neurons of the anterior insula fires at a basic emotional theme, irrespective of different modality of portrayal
Similar results[26,27] have been obtained for felt pain and during the observation of a painful situation, which was involved another person loved by the observer. Taken together, these experiments suggest that feeling emotions is due to the activation of circuits that mediate the corresponding emotional responses.

Evolution of language and mirror neurons

The discovery of mirror neurons provided strong support for the gestural theory of speech etymology. Mirror neurons create a direct link between the sender of a message and its receiver. Thanks to the mirror mechanism, actions done by one individual become messages that are understood by an observer without any cognitive mediation. The observation of an individual grasping an apple is immediately understood because it evokes the same motor representation in the parieto-frontal mirror system of the observer. On the basis of this fundamental property of mirror neurons and the fact that the observation of actions like hand grasping activates the caudal part of IFG (Broca's area), neuroscientists proposed that the mirror mechanism is the basic mechanism from which language evolved.[28]
Humans mostly communicate by sounds. Sound-based languages, however, do not represent the only natural way for communication. Languages based on gestures (signed languages) represent another form of complex, fully-structured communication system. This hypothesis argues that speech is the only natural human communication system, the evolutionary precursor of which is from animal calls. The argument goes as follows: Humans emit sound to communicate, animals emit sounds to communicate, therefore human speech evolved from animal calls.
The contradictions of the above syllogism are:
  • The anatomical structures underlying primate calls and human speech are different. Primate calls are mostly mediated by the cingulate cortex and by deep, diencephalic, and brain stem structures. In contrast, the circuits underlying human speech are formed by areas located around the Sylvian fissure, including the posterior part of IFG.
  • Animal calls are always linked to emotional behavior contrary to human speech.
  • Speech is mostly a dyadic, person-to-person communication system. In contrast, animal calls are typically emitted without a well-identified receiver.
  • Human speech is endowed with combinatorial properties that are absent in animal communication.
  • Humans do possess a “call” communication system like that of non-human primates and its anatomical location is similar. This system mediates the utterances that humans emit when in particular emotional states (cries, yelling, etc.). These utterances are preserved in patients with global aphasia.

 

РЕВОЛЮЦИОННОЕ ОТКРЫТИЕ ОБ УСТРОЙСТВЕ МОЗГА

Tuesday, November 25, 2014
Posted by 卍ᛣᛉ卐 ᛝ ↯↯↯ ѪDurgaѪ ↯↯↯ ᛝ 卍ᛉᛣ卐
Ученый, открывший человечеству тайну зеркальных нейронов.
Джакомо Ризолатти – итальянский нейробиолог, родился в 1937 году. Окончил Падуанский университет. В 1992 году профессор Ризолатти совершил революционное открытие, которое произвело переворот в психологии и других науках об устройстве мозга. Были обнаружены зеркальные нейроны - уникальные клетки мозга, которые активизируются, когда мы следим за действиями других людей. Эти клетки, как зеркало, автоматически «отражают» чужое поведение у нас в голове и позволяют прочувствовать происходящее так, как если бы мы совершали действия сами. Сейчас Джакомо Ризолатти возглавляет Институт неврологии Пармского университета и является почетным доктором Санкт-Петербургского государственного университета.
ОПЫТ СО СТАКАНОМ ВОДЫ
- Смотрите: я беру в руку стакан воды, - неожиданно начинает наше интервью профессор Ризолатти. – Вы понимаете, что я взял стакан, так? Но вовсе не потому, что успели вспомнить все законы физики и проанализировать: мол, есть сила земного притяжения, я противодействую ей и т.п. Понимание моего действия рождается у вас мгновенно благодаря зеркальным нейронамособым клеткам нашего мозга, которые автоматически, подсознательно распознают действие, которое мы видим. Скажу больше: если бы сейчас можно было сканировать ваш мозг, то мы бы заметили, что при виде моего действия у вас активировались те же самые нейроны, как если бы вы сами взяли в руку стакан.
Во Франции провели опыт: одну группу добровольцев попросили изобразить разные эмоции – радость, печаль; дали понюхать что-то неприятное, и на лице отразилось отвращение. Людей сфотографировали. А потом показали изображения другой группе испытуемых и фиксировали их реакцию. Что вы думаете? При виде соответствующих эмоций на фотографиях, у добровольцев в мозге активировались те же нейроны, как если бы они сами почувствовали запах гнилого, услышали радостную весть или были чем-то огорчены. Этот опыт – одно из подтверждений, что кроме зеркальных нейронов «действия» - их называют моторными, есть также эмоциональные зеркальные нейроны. Именно они помогают нам подсознательно, без всякого мыслительного анализа, а видя лишь мимику и жесты, понимать эмоции другого
человека. Так происходит, потому что благодаря «отражению» в мозге, мы сами начинаем испытывать те же ощущения.

У РАВНОДУШНЫХ ЛЮДЕЙ НЕ ХВАТАЕТ НЕЙРОНОВ?
- Но ведь все люди разные: есть очень отзывчивые, чувствительные. А есть черствые и равнодушные, которых, кажется, ничем не проймешь. Их, наверное, природа обделила эмоциональными зеркальными нейронами?
- Вряд ли. Мозг не так прост. Помимо зеркальных нейронов, безусловно, работает наше сознание, воля – с их помощью можно частично гасить те чувства и эмоции, которые появляются из-за действия зеркальных нейронов.
А еще большую роль играют социальные нормы, принятые в обществе. Если общество поддерживает идеологию эгоизма, индивидуализма: заботься в первую очередь о себе, собственном здоровье, материальном богатстве, - то вам приходится быть эгоистичным, поскольку считается, что именно это приведет к успеху. В таком случае роль вашей системы зеркальных нейронов снижается волевым усилием, воспитанием, привычным поведением.
Мотивация имеет очень большое значение. Кстати, во многих религиях есть принцип: люби других, как ты любишь себя. Не стоит думать, что такой принцип произошел от бога – на самом деле это естественное правило, которое отражает биологическое устройство человека и основано на работе зеркальных нейронов. Если ты не любишь людей, то жить в обществе будет очень тяжело. Между тем в западных обществах, особенно в последние века, был период строго индивидуалистического подхода. Сейчас же, например, Италия, Франция,Германия возвращаются к пониманию, что социальная жизнь не менее важна, чем личная.
Внимание ! Женский мозг реагирует сильнее .
- Если все-таки говорить о различиях в устройстве мозга, то замечено, что у женщин зеркальных нейронов в эмоциональной системе больше, чем у мужчин, -продолжает профессор. – Этим объясняется более высокая способность женщин к пониманию и сочувствию. Были эксперименты, когда добровольцам обоих полов показывали кого-то в состоянии боли, страдания – женский мозг реагировал гораздо сильнее, чем мужской. Так сложилось в результате эволюции: природе важно, чтобы именно мать, которая проводит больше всего времени с ребенком, была эмоционально открыта, сопереживала, радовалась и тем самым по зеркальному принципу помогала развивать эмоции малышу.
- Получается, бессмысленно обвинять мужчин в том, что они бесчувственные, и обижаться на них?
- Да, обижаться на нас не надо (смеется). Это природа. Кстати, есть еще один любопытный эксперимент, показывающий различие между мужчинами и женщинами. Организуется игра: скажем, я играю с вами против кого-то третьего, а потом вы начинаете нарочно играть против меня, хитрить. В этом случае я, мужчина, начну страшно сердиться, в то время как женщина считает такое поведение невинной шуткой. То есть женщина больше склонна прощать, относиться ко многим вещам легче в конечном итоге. А мужчина воспринимает ту же измену, скажем, гораздо серьезнее и менее отходчив.
КАК МЫСЛЬ СТАВИТ БОЛЬНЫХ НА НОГИ
- Вы открыли зеркальные нейроны больше 20 лет назад – наверняка с тех пор кроме научных исследований были попытки использовать ваше открытие в медицине?
- Да, мы работаем над практическим применением открытия, в том числе, в медицине. Известно, что моторные зеркальные нейроны заставляют нас мысленно воспроизводить то же действие, которое мы видим - если его совершает другой человек, в том числе на экране телевизора или компьютера. Так, например, замечено: когда люди смотрят поединок боксеров, у них напрягаются мускулы, и даже могут сжиматься кулаки. Это типичный нейроэффект, и на нем основана новая технология восстановления после инсульта, болезни Альцгеймера и других заболеваний, при которых человек забывает движения. Сейчас мы ведем эксперименты в Италии и Германии.
Суть вот в чем: если у пациента нейроны не окончательно «разбиты», а нарушена их работа, то используя зрительный толчок – показывая необходимое действие при определенных условиях – можно активизировать нервные клетки, заставить их «отражать» движения и снова начать работать, как нужно. Такой метод называется «терапия действия и наблюдения» (action-observation therapy), в экспериментах она дает значительное улучшение при реабилитации больных после инсульта.
Но самый удивительный результат обнаружился, когда эту терапию попробовали применить для восстановления людей после серьезных травм, автоаварий – когда человеку накладывают гипс, а потом ему фактически заново нужно учиться ходить. Обычно в таких случаях долго сохраняется болезненная походка, пациент хромает и т.д. Если традиционно обучать и тренировать, это занимает немало времени. В то же время, если показать специально созданный фильм с соответствующими движениями, то в мозге пострадавших активируются необходимые двигательные нейроны, и люди начинают нормально ходить буквально за несколько дней. Даже для нас, ученых, это выглядит как чудо.
«СЛОМАННЫЕ ЗЕРКАЛА»
- Профессор, а что происходит, если у человека повреждаются сами зеркальные нейроны? При каких болезнях это бывает?
- На самом деле массово повредить эти нейроны не так-то просто, они распределены по всей коре головного мозга. Если у человека случается инсульт, то повреждается лишь часть таких нейронов. Например, известно: когда повреждена левая часть мозга, то человек порой не может понимать действий других людей.
Наиболее серьезные повреждения зеркальных нейронов связаны с генетическими нарушениями. Чаще всего это происходит при аутизме. Поскольку в мозге таких больных сломан механизм «отражения» действий и эмоций окружающих, аутисты просто не могут понять, что делают другие люди. Они не в состоянии сочувствовать, поскольку не испытывают похожих эмоций при виде радости или переживаний. Все это им не знакомо, может пугать, и поэтому больные аутизмом пытаются скрыться, избегают общения.
- Если удалось выяснить такую причину болезни, ученые стали ближе к открытию средств излечивания?
- Мы думаем, что можно максимально полноценно восстанавливать детей-аутистов, если делать это в очень маленьком возрасте. На самом раннем этапе нужно проявлять очень сильную чувствительность, даже сентиментальность с такими детьми: мама, специалист должны очень много разговаривать с ребенком, прикасаться к нему – чтобы развивать и моторные, и эмоциональные навыки. Очень важно играть с ребенком, но не в соревновательные игры, а в такие, где успех наступает только при совместных действиях: например, ребенок тянет канат – ничего не получается, мама тянет – ничего, а если потянут вместе, то достается какой-то приз. Так ребенок понимает: ты и я вместе – это важно, не страшно, а полезно.
Как поднять настроение себе и другим
- Профессор, если мы подсознательно воспринимаем эмоции других людей, то, выходит, при просмотре фильмов ужасов или трагических репортажей по телевизору мы автоматически получаем те же эмоции? Скажем, расстраиваемся, и начинает вырабатываться гормон стресса кортизол, который нарушает нам сон, память, работу щитовидной железы и т.д.?
- Да, автоматически так происходит. Даже если вы будете пытаться успокоиться, контролировать себя – это может лишь несколько ослабить реакцию, но не избавит от нее.
- Можно использовать тот же принцип работы зеркальных нейронов, чтобы поднять настроение?
- Вы правы. Если вы общаетесь с позитивным, жизнерадостным человеком или смотрите фильм с таким героем, то в вашем мозге возникают такие же эмоции. А если вы сами хотите поднять настроение кому-то, то выше шансы сделать это не с трагически-сочувствующим выражением лица, а с доброжелательной легкой улыбкой.

Нейробиолог Джакомо Ризолатти: «Если вы видите счастливого человека, то мозг командует: поднять настроение!»

 

Источник сайт на котором есть довольно интересная информация

http://way999.blogspot.ru/2014/11/blog-post_65.html 

 

Just be real

Thursday, November 20, 2014
Posted by 卍ᛣᛉ卐 ᛝ ↯↯↯ ѪDurgaѪ ↯↯↯ ᛝ 卍ᛉᛣ卐
It feels so gooooooooooooood good to be real ...... it feels incredible .... being true !!!! Putting aside anything that isnt getting along with me being true and what i really wanna do or say, my way and myself are completely free now from anything that would say ... you shouldnt , its not the way or you shouldnt say that !!! its not how people do, this is not accepted !
I may only watch and laugh at all that now with a deep undersanding of it ... because it doesnt manipulate me anymore, I am the one in a control of myself now and I do and draw my life the way i wanna it to be ...
I wish i came to this understanding earlier but I am learning it now still, there is much more into it to see, and the first start is always exploring yourself first ... starting with self-love ... self-acceptance, being grateful to yourself ... only then you may expand yourself fully and your potential .
Yeeeeee .... only being true gives such a pure bliss .... that is what i choose ... and the result of what will come after I say or do anything i wanna ... should not bother ... the result isnt in my hands ... if i say anything or do, i may do only how it feels true ... with a good intention for all ... but i may not go against myself anymore ... not anymore ...
but what is in my hands now is doing what I may do at this moment ... but every litte victory means a lot to me .... every little victory which i do myself .... reaching the way i wanna be and who i wanna become now ... i am learning to love and appreciate myself...this is not selfish at all ... to love who you are, but we were never taught to do so ... so its time to learn on our own ... as i havent seen anybody guiding me to this ...
Owh Goooooooooooooooooood .... i truly wish for everyone to discover and develope a self-love, self-gratitute , self-acceptance and a self-trust ... so i am starting all over again ... with a 0 my way, but starting with something that truly matters and a base of the evolution ... when it makes you to really thrive, and to expand .... i so much love the sense and the feelings of it ...
sending it to all of you and the whole planet and Creation to experience it now ... the way i do ...
be love, increase loving yourself and everything will come and open to you ...
I am grateful, thank you ... thank you .................... hearts hearts hearts
I put all my love into it right now ... expressing what i am feeling ...


Nataliia Maznitsina

SHAPE-SHIFTING IS REAL - WE VOLUNTEERED! - UNIVERSAL DECISIONS

Wednesday, November 19, 2014
Posted by 卍ᛣᛉ卐 ᛝ ↯↯↯ ѪDurgaѪ ↯↯↯ ᛝ 卍ᛉᛣ卐














To listen Online click Here
 
A very diverse show, indeed!  Expect wonder, healing, tears, frustration, discernment and triumph. Shall we begin?
The Invocation - Shape-shifting - MerMaids and MerMen? - Achieving your Heart's Desire - Our current level of consciousness/frequency? - We and Prime Creator ask: "No RV?!" -  Our government now under new management.When announced and by whom? - We create new reality now - Prime Creator set movement for RV; Lightworker collective in one accord brings fruition. 
Your Higher Purpose AFTER RV? - Rod's Multiple Myeloma symptoms... GONE! - Free energy devices. Where??  - Released from prison! - Is she trying TOO hard? -  "Thanksgiving 2013 will be your best Thanksgiving ever." What happened?? - Zorra confirms Prosperity Packages follow RV - He suggests a different approach - She gets 98% positive response - Prime Creator's Agreement with Cabal had a fixed period of time THAT HAS NOW EXPIRED. They broke agreement by not quitting. Prime Creator now considering ending Free Will. And yes, we knew Duality was coming to a close, NEVER to exist again. - Today some are exchanging large sums, BUT... their accounts will be frozen! 
Our challenge? BE the Gods/Goddesses we came here to BE!  FEEL the fulfillment of your Desire! - Follow our EXPRESS-YOUR-LOVE campaign using Zorra's LOVE-HEALING-PULSE and QUIET MEADOW VISUALIZATION posted on the Home page of www.HollowEarthNetwork.com 
As Vivian reminded us, "You volunteered!" - Let's make USE of this last opportunity to BE the Gods and Godesses we came here to BE!

 http://www.blogtalkradio.com/hollowearthnetwork

Meditation can Grow Your Brain in Just 8 Weeks

Tuesday, November 18, 2014
Posted by 卍ᛣᛉ卐 ᛝ ↯↯↯ ѪDurgaѪ ↯↯↯ ᛝ 卍ᛉᛣ卐
meditate_hands_735-735x250
A team of researchers led by Dr. Lazar, a neurologist and instructor at Harvard medical school, has discovered that meditating for just 8 weeks can fuel grey-matter in the hippocampus and promote brain ‘growth’. More specifically, the practice of meditation can spark measurable changes in brain regions associated with memory, sense of self, empathy, and stress.

For the study, 16 volunteers took part in Dr. Lazar’s ‘mindfulness’ course, with magnetic resonance (MR) images being taken 2 weeks before and after the study. After just 8 short weeks of practicing mindfulness meditation, her volunteers showed thicker grey matter in several important areas of the brain, including the left hippocampus, a small horseshoe-shaped structure in the central brain involved in memory, learning and emotional regulation.
Additional parts of the brain positively affected by just eight weeks of meditation were posterior the cingulate cortex – also important for memory and emotions; the temporoparietal junction, involved in empathy creation; and the cerebellum, which helps to coordinate movement.
Study senior author Sara Lazar of the MGH Psychiatric Neuroimaging Research Program and a Harvard Medical School instructor in psychology, said:
“Although the practice of meditation is associated with a sense of peacefulness and physical relaxation, practitioners have long claimed that meditation also provides cognitive and psychological benefits that persist throughout the day. This study demonstrates that changes in brain structure may underlie some of these reported improvements and that people are not just feeling better because they are spending time relaxing.”
Britta Hölzel, first author of the paper and a research fellow at MGH and Giessen University in Germany, said:
“It is fascinating to see the brain’s plasticity and that, by practicing meditation, we can play an active role in changing the brain and can increase our well-being and quality of life. Other studies in different patient populations have shown that meditation can make significant improvements in a variety of symptoms, and we are now investigating the underlying mechanisms in the brain that facilitate this change.”
Those who did not go take part in Dr. Lazar’s course experienced no such structural brain changes.
The meditation course seemed to cause the brain to form denser connections among important centers that regulate our behavior and help us to be ‘smart.’
This translates to all sorts of possible benefits – from handling stress better at work and in our lives, to conducting out responsibilities with more élan. Sure, you can cram for those finals, or beat your head against the wall trying to meet a deadline at work, but maybe some life-long meditative practices can help.
Her talk and pictures are highly motivating for those looking for an edge in their industry or who just need some extra oomph to get through their hectic lives.
You can see Dr. Lazar talk about her brain scans in a Ted Talks video here.


Credit: Natural Society 


URGENT Update from The Event Chronicle — This Website Was Attacked & Taken Offline for Sharing This Story. To read all that has transpired over the past week, click here.

Other than the original facebook post, this web site is the first one to carry this and it needs to be spread, the future may be riding on this one, ARCHIVE, POST POST AND RE-POST!
Nana Kwame wrote: 
People in the Western World need to know what’s happening here in West Africa. THEY ARE LYING!!! “Ebola” as a virus does NOT Exist and is NOT “Spread”. The Red Cross has brought a disease to 4 specific countries for 4 specific reasons and it is only contracted by those who receive treatments and injections from the Red Cross. That is why Liberians and Nigerians have begun kicking the Red Cross out of their countries and reporting in the news the truth. Now bear with me:
REASONS:
Most people jump to “depopulation” which is no doubt always on the mind of the West when it comes to Africa. But I assure you Africa can NEVER be depopulated by killing 160 people a day when thousands are born per day. So the real reasons are much more tangible.
Reason 1: This vaccine implemented sickness being “called” Ebola was introduced into West Africa for the end goal of getting troops on the ground in Nigeria, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. If you remember America was just trying to get into Nigeria for “Boko Haram” #BULLSHIT but that fell apart when Nigerians started telling the truth. There ARE NO GIRLS MISSING. Global support fell through the floor, and a new reason was needed to get troops into Nigeria and steal the new oil reserves they have discovered.
Reason 2: Sierra Leone is the World’s Largest Supplier of Diamonds. For the past 4 months they have been on strike, refusing to provide diamonds due to horrible working conditions and slave pay. The West will not pay a fair wage for the resources because the idea is to keep these people surviving on rice bags and foreign aid so that they remain a source of cheap slave labor forever. A reason was also needed to get troops on the ground in Sierra Leone to force an end to the diamond miners strikes. This is not the first time this has been done. When miners refuse to work troops are sent in and even if they have to kill and replace them all, the only desire is to get diamonds back flowing out of the country.
Of course to launch multiple campaigns to invade these countries separately would be way too fishy. But something like “Ebola” allows access to an entire area simultaneously…
Reason 3: In addition to stealing Nigerian oil, and forcing Sierra Leone back to mining, troops have also been sent in to FORCE vaccinations (Deadly “Ebola” Poison) onto those Africans who are not foolish enough to take them willingly.
3000 troops are being sent in to make sure that this “poison” continues to spread, because again it is only spread through vaccination. As more and more news articles are released as they have been in Liberia, informing the populous of the US lies and manipulation, more and more Africans are refusing to visit the Red Cross. Troops will force these vaccinations upon the people to ensure the visible appearance of an Ebola pandemic. In addition to this they will protect the Red Cross from the Liberians and Nigerians who have been rightfully ejecting them from their countries.
Reason 4: Last but not least, the APPEARANCE of this Ebola “pandemic” (should Americans not catch on) will be used to scare the countless millions into taking an “Ebola vaccine” which in reality is the pandemic. Already they have started with stories of how it has been brought to the U.S. and has appeared in Dallas, how white doctors were cured but black infected are not being allowed to be treated, etc.
ALL that will do is make blacks STRIVE to get the vaccine, because it appears that the “cure” is being held back from blacks. They will run out in droves to get it and then there will be serious problems. With all we have seen revealed about vaccines this year you would think we learned our lesson. All I can do is hope so, Because they rely on our ignorance to complete their agendas.
Ask yourself: If Ebola really was spread from person to person, instead of controlled spread through vaccination – then WHY would the CDC and the US Government continue to allow flights in and out of these countries with absolutely no regulation, Or At All? We have got to start thinking and sharing information globally because they do not give the true perspective of the people who live here in West Africa. They are lying for their own benefit and there aren’t enough voices out there with a platform to help share our reality. Hundreds of thousands have been killed, paralyzed and disabled by these and other “new” vaccines all over the world and we are finally becoming aware of it. Now what will we do with all this information?
Reference: Jim Stone Freelance

Related:

RESULTS OF WHITE HOUSE MEETING? WHO WILL ANNOUNCE?

Posted by 卍ᛣᛉ卐 ᛝ ↯↯↯ ѪDurgaѪ ↯↯↯ ᛝ 卍ᛉᛣ卐

HOLLOW * EARTH * NETWORK

HOLLOW * EARTH * NETWORK

Listen to a radio show Online click here

One of the most informative shows - preparing for Change ...
Invocation - Eating for Ascension... for our crystalline/silican bodies! We ARE what we think and what we EAT. Exciting information on eating regionally... easy raised gardens, "magic" greenhouses, perfect soil! - Magic gardening with the Elementals... devas, gnomes, fairies. Where did the missing children/babies go? - Protecting today's babies/children. The Garden Prayer. Preventing insects safely.-  48-hour White House meeting - All in agreemenmt. Watch for Lenticular clouds! - Obama and Galactics? Who will Announce? - - Q & A:  What will help our friends and family "hear" our Truth? - She's asking the Mer and Little People. - Can they still grab our Blessings? - When will we connect with our Mentors? - Adding consciousness to garden soil - Growing food indoors - Laminine is energetically transformed: safe for vegans! - Stem Fit vs Laminine? - Organic cafe's large following - Which video is a REAL Mermaid? - Where is "Heaven?" -  How know our destinations at time of the Gathering? - GCR: is ISIS a problem? - 3D concerns? Stabalize in Love! - Who has already Ascended? - An economic crash? - Annihilation? - Disarmament... now??? - Is Obama a clone? - Health/Healing testimonials... from Pulse, from products.

Listen to a radio show Online click here


www.HollowEarthNetwork.com  Follow: BREAKING NEWS

Cobra - Amazing Short Planetary Update november 2014

Posted by 卍ᛣᛉ卐 ᛝ ↯↯↯ ѪDurgaѪ ↯↯↯ ᛝ 卍ᛉᛣ卐



(Cobra) There is a very delicate operation of the Light forces ongoing and until it is complete, no substantial intel can be released. If everything goes according to plan, heaps of intel will be released in a few weeks and especially after mid-December.

Until then, you can listen to this short but interesting Cobra interview (the first 14 minutes):
Also, for the French speaking population, beautiful videos have been created.
About the Event:
About the compression breakthrough:
About the Galactic Confederation:
About the Galactic Codex:
About the forces of Light and forces of darkness:
About the White Knights:
About quarantine Earth endgame:
And about the Removal of the Chimera:
Despite all appearances, the victory of the Light is near!

Guest's map ( карта гостей)

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